Sunday, March 22, 2020

Hotel Cavendish Company Analysis

Hotel Cavendish is located in the dynamic center of Bloomsbury in UK. A PESTEL examination is an essential tool which helps in analyzing the political, economic, social, technical, environmental and legislative pressures which may affect an institution (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23). These external pressures that have an effect on Hotel Cavendish ought to be vigilantly taken into account by the hotel administration.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Hotel Cavendish Company Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The hotel’s strategic fundamental position in the capital makes it susceptible to PESTEL pressures. This is evident in the existence of new rules in the city that need acquiescence. Demographic changes may lead to the diminution of market size and a fresh technology may be introduced (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23). This requires new advertising and end u ser approval alternatives that need clear exemplification. In a social context, London has an assortment of religion and cultures. Hundreds of languages are spoken in its environs and the employment of more trained staff that is multi-lingual is necessary for the 4-star hotel. Around 2 million visitors from all over the globe visit the center every month either for business purposes or leisurely as tourists. Demographic trends evident in the changes in the populace age, composition along with the entry of new cultures and race in the area make it appropriate for the hotel to identify its potential clients. The capital is an economic center and countless intercontinental businesses are carried out here. Large business moguls arrive in the city of London to transact huge business deals. There ought to be additional options of spacious conference rooms for delegates, aside from the present ones which host 2-80 people (Cavendish hotel, 2010). The hotel administration should endeavor to sustain regular businessmen who may want urgent accommodation in the hotel or referred to alternative areas. Even though it is required to reserve in advance, there can be exceptional reservations for a number of regulars. There are hundreds of overseas banks and offices for thousands of companies in London, and the employees and officials may need making urgent reservations. The effect of recession and change in stock exchange market fluctuations must be strictly monitored. Trends in economic indicators like the cost of raw materials and the level of income of its clients are essential information in knowing the visiting trends of clients.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Environmental issues from time to time control the social decisions and purchasing options that clients make in the selection of new services being offered in the hotel. Use of solar technology to produce energy and having breezy areas of shady plants are a benefit in selection of whether one will make reservations for the hotel or select a different option. Out-of-doors landscaping with appropriate foliage at the lounge and entrance can take account of areas for dining. The hotel is a non-smoking zone. This course of action will successfully draw more non-smokers (Cavendish hotel, 2010). Those who smoke have to use alternative hotels, hence loss of clients. An effective way of pleasing both is by having rooms in a section for smokers. Some delegates may either be smokers or non-smokers and may desire to be accommodated in the same place. It is not forgotten that technology is intensifying at an extraordinarily rapid pace. Sources of power and information systems are undergoing modification thus the need for the hotel to be very adaptive to these changes. Available options for publicity should be employed in an aggressive edge (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23). The government on numerous occasions initiates changes in bylaws and rules which may stabilize or weaken the hotels functionality. Such changes are directly related to politics consequently affecting the number of visitors into the country and the hotel. The operations in Cavendish hotel is affected by different forms of pressure that are best illustrated by the Pestle criterion. It is imperative to acknowledge that the success of the venture is wholly reliant on the manner in which it manipulates the environment as portrayed by the political, economic, social, technical, environmental and legislative concepts (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23) Reference List Cavendish hotel, 2010, Hotel Cavendish, 12th may 2010, www.hotelcavendish.com Institute of leadership and management, 2007, marketing for managers, Massachusetts, Elsevier. Pp. 23Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Hotel Cavendish Company Analysis specifically for you for only $16. 05 $11/page Learn More This report on Hotel Cavendish Company Analysis was written and submitted by user Annabell Albert to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The Indian Agriculture Sector

The Indian Agriculture Sector Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. It accounts for nearly 20 percent of the aggregate output. To be specific, nearly half of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihood (Government of India, 2010, p. 6). Contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy is declining, however other sectors thrive.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Indian Agriculture Sector specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, approximately 45 percent of the total output was obtained from the agricultural sector in the early 70s,. The figure has dropped to less than 20 percent in the last decade. Nonetheless, agriculture still remains a significant source of employment for many Indians. It provides jobs to over half of the country’s population (Government of India, 2010, p. 12). The dwindling agricultural production has led to a decrease in agricultural exports and an increase in agricultural imports. T he ratio of agricultural exports to the total exports dropped to 10 percent in 2010 compared to 20 percent in the early 90s. On the other hand, the ratio of agricultural imports to the aggregate imports grew by approximately 6.6 percent in the last three decades (Government of India, 2010, p. 13). The decrease in agricultural production and the increase in agricultural imports have been a cause of major concern. Hot debates didnt provide any solution to the problem, as well as small reforms. situation deteriorated which led to introduction of the next five-year plan. As a result, the government came up with a five-year plan, which solely targets the agricultural sector. The five-year plan is aimed at reversing the disturbing trend in the sector. The five-year plan puts emphasis on the country’s self-sufficiency and self-reliance in the food production (Vaidyanathan, 2010, p. 9; Government of India, 2013, p. 5). This paper explores the impact of the 11th five-year plan on Indi a’s agricultural sector, particularly in promoting local food production and economy stability. 11TH  Five Year Plans (2007-2011) As the country’s population keeps growing, the nation needed to enhance its food production to take care of the ever-increasing demand. Given the significance of the agricultural sector to the economy, the government introduced the 11th five-year plan to provide support and incentives to farmers and other stakeholders in order to enhance production of food (Government of India, 2013, p. 5).Advertising Looking for essay on agriculture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are four principal elements of this policy. The first element is enhancement of viability of agricultural operations by increasing market access, availing insurance cover, and monitoring agricultural commodity prices (IBEF, 2013, p. 7). The second element is provision of suitable technologies through resea rch and training. The third element is increase of budgetary allocation for agriculture and its infrastructure so as to improve efficient use of natural resources and of agricultural commodity markets functioning. Last but not least is provision of better delivery of services, for instance, loans to farmers, veterinary services and general farm inputs. In a nutshell, the 11th five-year plan was aimed at increasing food production by providing special programs and building agricultural infrastructure (IBEF, 2013, p. 7). The Impact of the 11th Five-Year Plan on the economy and local food production Figure 1 below shows India’s GDP growth rate over the last ten years. It is clear that between 1997 and 2007 the real agricultural output was decreasing, whereas the non-agricultural output was increasing. The ratio of agricultural GDP to the total GDP was very low during that period. This forced the government to reconsider its policy on food production, hence to introduce the 11th five-year plan (Central Statistics Office, 2011, p. 44). The 11th five-year program introduced the National Food Security Mission (NFSM), which significantly increased production of cereals in the country. The principal goal of the National Food Security Mission was to establish scientific elements which incorporate mechanization, soil supplements and crop security measures (Government of India, 2013, p. 6). The 11th five-year plan helped to attain 3.2 percent agricultural GDP growth. Even though the figure was below the projected value of 4 percent, it was significantly better than the figures under the previous policies (Central Statistics Office, 2011, p. 45). Figure 1: Agriculture and Non-Agriculture GDP Growth Rate in India in the Last DecadeAdvertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Indian Agriculture Sector specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Source: (Central Statistics Office, 2011) Before the introduction of the 11 th five-year plan, the share of acreage of agricultural lands decreased by approximately 20 million hectares. Similarly, the area under food grains shrank by 10 percent. The lowest production was recorded in 2008. However, the introduction of new technologies under the 11th five-year plan led to 80 percent increase in acreage of agricultural lands. The production of rice, wheat and maize increased significantly, followed by pulses on the second place. Under the 11th five-year plan, food grain output increased by 2.3 percent (Central Statistics Office, 2011, p. 45). Generally, Indian agribusiness is characterized by diminutive and divided area holdings. There are around 130 million active holdings in the country. On average, each active holding possesses approximately 1.2 hectares. Less than 1 percent own more than 10 hectares (Sharma, 2011, p. 6). Before the introduction of the 11th five-year plan, the overall productivity among the smallholder producers was exceedingly low. Their p articipation in the market was poor because of such reasons as high transaction costs, low yields, inadequate information and small market consumption. In addition, increased land fragmentation led to big losses on farmlands. As a result, many farmers opted to lease their lands or seek gainful employment outside the agricultural sector (IBEF, 2013, p. 5). The introduction of the 11th five-year plan brought some positive results. The 11th five-year plan supported the formation of cooperatives and self-help groups. The cooperatives and self-help groups not only helped farmers to access credit facilities, but also to market their products. The government increased access to loan facilities by providing interest-free loans and subsidized inputs.Advertising Looking for essay on agriculture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For this reason, many Indians went back to farming (IBEF, 2013, p. 6). By the end of 2012, cultivation areas had increased by 8 million hectares. The government also introduced other support programs through the 11th five-year plan, such as water for canal irrigation, power for groundwater pumping, retention price subsidy scheme for fertilizers, and access to the international market (IBEF, 2013, p. 7). According to the IBEF (2013, p. 7), the main objective of the 11th five-year plan was to increase the production of food grains by 20 million tons. The government allocated roughly 900 million U.S. dollars for the project. There are four main achievements of the 11th five-year plan for the first year according to the National Food Security Mission (NFSM). The first achievement was a 70 million tons to over 90 million tons increase of wheat production. The second achievement was a 90 million tons to over 110 million tons increase of rice production. The third achievement was an 80 mil lion tons to over 100 million tons increase of maize production. And the last was a 13 million tons to over 15 million tons increase of pulse production (IBEF, 2013, p. 7). Figure 2 below highlights the growth rate of land, labor and capital output based on the agricultural GDP index. Even though the productivity growth rate in the agricultural sector has always been low, averaging 2 percent per year, during the 11th five-year plan it reached 5 percent. This was the highest figure recorded in the country’s history. The closest was 3 percent, which was recorded in 1981. As a matter of fact, the Commission of Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) estimated the growth rate of real wages in the agricultural sector at 8 percent per annum during the period (Government of India, 2013, p. 9). Figure 2: Growth Rate of Land, Labor and Capital Output Source: (Government of India, 2013, p. 9) The introduction of the scientific elements, for instance, labor saving mechanization led to the rapid increase of private investment in the agricultural sector. This is attributed to the country’s rigid labor laws and the ever-increasing wages (Shiva, 2013, p. 2). Although mechanization helped farmers to deal with labor challenges, it caused a sharp decline in capital productivity. Even though moderated by gains from trade deals and debt cancellation, long-term investment in the agricultural sector may be unsustainable due to deteriorating capital productivity (Shiva, 2013, p. 3). The 12th five-year plan (2012-2017), which is basically a continuation of the 11th five-year plan also emphasizes increase of food grains production. The two plans (11th and 12th five-year plans) recognize the fact that self-sufficiency in food production can only be attained by increasing the production of staple foods. In India, food security is inextricably linked to food grains. Therefore, the debates on food shortages are concentrated on rice, wheat, maize and pulses (Sharma Dinesh, 201 1, p. 30). 12th five-year plan is also expected to produce high results and solve a lot of food problems in India. The 11th five-year plan helped substantially to make India a food sufficient country, despite the rapid growth of population. In other words, India is currently food secure due to the 11th five-year plan (IBEF, 2013, p. 9). Conclusion Agriculture in India is both a source of food and livelihood. In addition, the sector is very important to the country’s economy. However, the period between 1997 and 2007 was characterized by low agricultural productivity and high levels of food shortage. This forced the Indian government to spend a large amount of money on food import. On the other hand, the ratio of agricultural imports to the aggregate imports grew by approximately 6.6 percent in the last three decades regardless of the initiated key reforms in the agricultural sector. However, the reform programs were ineffective. This led to the introduction of the 11th five-y ear plan, which was aimed at making India a food-secure country through the production of food grains. The plan significantly helped reverse the situation. As a matter of fact, the 12th five-year plan, which runs up to 2017, is just a continuation of the 11th five-year plan. The 12th five-year plan also aims at increasing the production of food grains, which are staples in India. References Central Statistics Office 2011, Revised Estimates of Annual National Income 2010-11 and Quarterly Estimates of Gross Domestic Product, 2010-11, Central Statistics Office, New Delhi. Government of India 2010, Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2010. Web. Government of India 2013, Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-2017): Economic Sectors, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, New Delhi. IBEF 2013, The Indian Agriculture Sector: Investments, Growth and Prospects, India Brand Equity Foundation, New Delhi. Sharma, VP Dinesh, J 2011, High Value Agriculture in India: past Trends and Future P rospects. Web. Sharma, VP 2011, India’s Agricultural Development under the New Economic Regime: Policy Perspective and Strategy for the 12th Five Year Plan, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. Shiva, V 2013, Agricultural Sector in India. Web. Vaidyanathan, A 2010, Agriculture Growth in India: Role of Technology, Incentives and  Institutions, Oxford University Press, New York.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Differences in Mergers Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Differences in Mergers - Research Paper Example The merger between a manufacturing company and one of its distribution channel partners is an example of a possible vertical merger. When IBM acquired Intelliden in 2010 it is an example of another form of vertical merger. The smaller Intelliden in the business activity of automation software technology was vertically merged with the larger IBM, enabling IBM to make use of its automated software competencies, so that it did not have to create these competencies and develop the software available with Intelliden. A conglomerate merger is totally different from a horizontal and vertical merger, as it involves the merger between two companies that operate in different sectors of industrial activity. A clear example of such a merger can be seen from the merger of the financial company Berkshire Hathaway with the railroad and transportation company Burlington Northern Santa Fe (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor, 2010,

Monday, February 3, 2020

What are causes and effects of not conforming to social pressure Essay

What are causes and effects of not conforming to social pressure - Essay Example According to Asch’s research, most subjects tend to trust their own decisions even though they are under pressures that the confederates try to force subjects into changing their opinion. As a result, conformity is not totally necessary for people in order to stay in the group. Having a fashionable high technology product is what most people want today, especially the iPhone from the Apple Company. It is built with the latest technology and with elegant looks. Many people are conforming to buy it because of the advertising and existing users’ pressure. Their envy makes them follow others’ behavior. I was once asked by my friends to replace my phone with the iPhone because they are all using it. However, I refused to buy it because I feel I do not need it. It is not necessary to have such an expensive cell phone that I may not use the full functions of. I always ask myself the question of why I have to be like everyone else. Indeed, there is certain conformity such as traditional culture that people should follow, but it doesn’t mean that I should behave like some of those people buying pointless, fancy products. Even though I do not conform to social pressure, there is nothing changing in my life. I am still part of my social group, where my friends do not judge me as an outsider. Actually, there is nothing wrong with nonconformity. At least I have my own value to analyze anything. My mind and behavior are not controlled by someone else. So, I can have my own principle to do what I want. Similar to Asch’s experiment, only people who trust their own judgment will get the correct answer. However, people who conform to the group pressure are just for their self-complacence. They think it is the only way the group can accept them and have the same place in the conversation. In fact, it is how social groups make people think they are in the top trend and control their

Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Scale and Diversity of the Hospitality Industry

The Scale and Diversity of the Hospitality Industry The Hospitality Industry is one of the most vast and fast growing Industries in the World. Its industry is known to provide services like providing food, beverages and accommodation. Some key job titles in this vast industry that help run it are namely: Accommodation manager, Catering manager, Conference centre manager, Event organizer, Fast food restaurant manager, Hotel manager, Public house manager, Restaurant chain area manager, Restaurant manager. To get a job in this field the employer may consider several facts like ones past education and personal aspects like: Personality, consistency in work, a keen attitude, a friendly nature, a willingness to work, confidence, neat appearance, cleanliness, personal hygiene, over all personality, ability to provide customer service efficiency and honesty at work. Apart from being one of the highest rated and desired industries to start a profession in The Hospitality Industry also offers equality among all. From a survey done by The INTERNATINAOL JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT, Volume 16,Issue 2, June 1997, pages 161-179, read an article stating EQUAL OPPERTUNITIS FOR WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: A COMPARISONBETWEEN FRANCE, ITALY SPAIN AND THE UK by Jean Burrell, Simon Etta Manfred and Hilary Rollin. The article stated how the Hospitality industry in the UK offers equal posts for women as well as men irrespective of their cast, race etc. The industry of hospitality has been a great source all over the world in generating employment. The Hospitality industry is a large employer to many ethnic minorities all over the world. The Industry makes a major part of its earnings from several sources one of the main sources being the foreign exchange earnings. Tourism being one of the main segments of the hospitality industry it very important to know about its aspects for the growth and the scope of the hospitality industry. Chris Cooper the author of the book Contemporary Tourism Reviews said that the, tourism industry can be defined as a whole range of individuals, businesses, organizations and places which combine in some way to deliver a travel experience. The hospitality industry can be claimed to be the most elaborate working sector in the market today. It is present in practically every field and everyplace. Be it schools, colleges, hotels, prisons, airports, stations etc. The Hospitality Industry consists of a very broad category of various fields within the industry itself also, Such as Restaurants bars Marketing sales Human resources Housekeeping Travel agencies Tourism management Front office Hotels/Lodging etc The hospitality industry has contributed in many ways to the betterment of the society. These may include an increase in disposable incomes, offering more time for leisure activities, easier and cheaper ways to travel as a result of an improved style of living. These contributions made by the hospitality industry are significant and wide-ranging. Production and service, leisure service, large as well as small-scale employments are some factors that are contributed by the hospitality industry. Catering and the hotel industry are known as one of the fastest growing industries in the world today. They are not only the key element of the tourism department but also a huge donor towards bringing in foreign currency. From one of the surveys conducted by THE BRITISH HOSPITALITY ASSOCIATION, 2004 overseas visitors spent close to 12 billion pounds of a total value of 76 billion pounds which was the total amount of the tourism (2003) Millions of people like to have a quick snack or prefer having meals near their place of work or study, this is possible through a large contribution of cafà ©s, restaurants, public houses etc. PRESS RELEASEUNITED KINGDOM: RESTAURANTS MARKET RESERCH REPORT RELEASED IN MARCH 2009 MBD`s REPORT: after researching the restaurants market in the UNITED KINGDOM and also taking into account other factors the following report was made by MBD. MARKET REVIEW 2004 2008 In the year 2008 the restaurants industry in the UK had faced a decline of 3% (around  £5373 million) this is due to a descending pressure on restaurant turnover caused by an increase in economic qualms. Also there was a downfall in consumer spending due to rising cost of food. From 2004 2007 there was an early increase in the sales resulting to a growth in the industry every year . MARKET FORECAST 2009 2013 Fats food, take away, pick and go services, in-house catering facilities are a furthermore huge contribution towards improvement In standard of living, offering discretionary income which is enjoyed by a huge majority of people which was only constrained just to the affluent in the society. Being one of the fastest expanding sectors of the economy, the hospitality industry solely stands as a multi billion and growing industry. It offers so much accompanied with entertainment, food, accommodation etc, and unlimited opportunity. The industry is so immense, that it offers diverse people a various number of job opportunities to chose from in their area of interest all within the same industry. Common features involved in the hospitality management are planning, directing, organizing and controlling of material as well as human resources within the lodging, travel and tourism, restaurant, institutional management, recreational management. All of these are separate yet related segments of the same industry interdependent on each other to provide service to the guest. There are various Sectors within the Hospitality industry it self, such as: Food and Beverage Lodging Recreation Travel Tourism THE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM The Classification System can be based on a various number of things depending on the Food service, size and additional facilities etc. Mostly all major departments are also sub divided in to other sub divisions so as to cater to specific needs and also offer a large variety of options to choose from allowing one to choose exactly what is demanded and also helps to compare and contrast between several options. FOOD AND BEVERAGE The food and beverage industry can also be stated as the backbone of the hospitality sector. Offering food and beverage services from sectors as small as a pub at the corner to a 5 star club. From a small cafà © with a preset menu to a gigantic catering company serving more than a 1000 people a day. The Food and beverage industry has undergone many changes over the past years depending on the factors of continual evolution in global market forces, changes in consumer preferences, regulation proposed by the government, which are making direct effects on the change in manufacturing strategies around the world. Major and familiar names such as MC DONALDS, COCA COLA, STARBUCKS ETC can be found almost everywhere in the world proving the fact how the industry had expanded during the past half century. The growth in the food and beverage industry has brought an economic boom to many nations such as CHINA, INDIA, BRAZIL, and VIETNAM. The FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRY can be further sub-classified into many smaller groups such as BARS AND TAVERNS CATTERING FAST FOOD FRANCHISES GENRAL FOOD SERVICE AND HOSPITALITY QUICK SERVICE VENDING TAKE OUT/AWAY AND DELIVERY SERVICES FIVE STAR HOTEL REF: http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.upgradetravelbetter.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/11/versace- A LODGE REF: http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=enbiw=1440bih=679gbv=2tbs=isch%3A1sa=1q=lodgeaq=faqig10aqloq Different segments of Hospitality Catering There are several types of catering naming a few: Wedding food catering Corporate Catering Buffet Catering Ala carte Catering Party Catering Commercial Catering Types Of Full service Hotels Convention Hotel Luxury Hotel Resort Hotel Extended-Stay Hotel Types Of Limited service Hotels Limited-service Hotels Budget Hotels Specialty Accommodations Conference Centers Lodges Bed-and-Breakfast Hostel Campgrounds Institutional Housing Dormitory Senior Housing

Saturday, January 18, 2020

International English Language Testing System

Candidate Number Candidate Name ______________________________________________ International English Language Testing System Listening Practice test 40 minutes Time 40 minutes Instructions to candidates Do not open this question paper until you are told to do so. Write your name and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page. Listen to the instructions for each part of the paper carefully. Answer all the questions. While you are listening, write your answers on the question paper. You will have 10 minutes at the end of the test to copy your answers onto the separate answer sheet. Use a pencil.At the end of the test, hand in this question paper. Information for candidates There are four parts to the test. You will hear each part once only. There are 40 questions. Each question carries one mark. For each part of the test, there will be time for you to look through the questions and time for you to check your answers. Section 1 Questions 1–10 Questions 1–5 Comp lete the notes below. Write no more than two words and/or a number for each answer. Transport from Bayswater Example Answer Destination Harbour City †¢ †¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ †¢ Express train leaves at 1 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¢ †¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ †¢ Nearest station is 2 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¢ †¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ Number 706 bus goes to 3 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¢ †¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ †¢ Number 4 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. bus goes to station †¢ †¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ †¢ Earlier bus leaves at 5 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Questions 6–10 Complete the table below. Write no more than one word and/or a number for each answer. Transport Cash fare Card fare Bus 6 $ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ $1. 50 Train (peak) $10 $10 Train (off-peak) – before 5pm or after 7 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ pm) $10 9 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ ferry $4. 50 $3. 55 Tourist ferry (10 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦) $35 – Tourist ferry (whole day) $65 – 8 $ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Section 2 Questions 11–20 Questions 11–14 Which counsellor should you see? Write the correct letter, A, B or C, next to questions 11–14. A Louise Bagshaw B Tony Denby C Naomi Flynn 1 if it is your first time seeing a counsellor 12 if you are unable to see a counsellor during normal office hours 13 if you do not have an appointment 14 if your concerns are related to anxiety Questions 15–20 Complete the table below. Write no more than two words for each answer. Workshop Content Target group Adjusting what you need to succeed academically 15 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ students Getting Organised use time effectively, find 16 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ between study and leisure Communicating talki ng with staff, communicating across cultures Anxiety 18 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦, breathing techniques, meditation, etc. all students all students, especially 17 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ tudents about to sit exams 19 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ staying on track for long periods 20 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ students only Section 3 Questions 21–30 Questions 21–30 Complete the notes below. Write no more than three words for each answer. Novel: 21 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Protagonists: Mary Lennox; Colin Craven Time period: Early in 22 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Plot: Mary > UK – meets Colin who thinks he’ll never be able to 23 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ . They become friends. Point of view: â€Å"Omniscient† – narrator knows all about characters’ feelings, opinions and 24 à ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Audience: Good for children – story simple to follow Symbols (physical items that represent 25 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦): †¢ the robin redbreast 26 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¢ the portrait of Mistress Craven Motifs (patterns in the story): †¢ the Garden of Eden †¢ secrecy – metaphorical and literal transition from 27 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Themes: Connections between †¢ 28 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ and outlook †¢ 29 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ and well-being †¢ individuals and the need for 30 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Section 4 Questions 31–40 Questions 31–35 Complete the table below. Write one word only for each answer. Time Zone Outlook Time Perspectives Features & Consequences Past Positive Remember good times, e. g. birthday s. 31 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Keep family records, photo albums, etc. Focus on disappointments, failures, bad decisions.Present Hedonistic Live for 32 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. ; seek sensation; avoid pain. Fatalistic Life is governed by 33 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. , religious beliefs, social conditions. Life’s path can’t be changed. Future 34 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Prefer work to play. Don’t give in to temptation. Fatalistic Have a strong belief in life after death and importance of 35 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. in life. Questions 36–40 Choose the correct letter, A, B or C. 36 We are all present hedonists A at school B at birth C while eating and drinking 37 American boys drop out of school at a higher rate than girls because A they need to be in control of the way they learnB they play video games instead of doing school work C they are not as intelligent as girls 38 Present-orientated chi ldren A do not realise present actions can have negative future effects B are unable to learn lessons from past mistakes C know what could happen if they do something bad, but do it anyway 39 If Americans had an extra day per week, they would spend it A working harder B building relationships C sharing family meals 40 Understanding how people think about time can help us A become more virtuous B work together better C identify careless or ambitious people TranscriptNarrator: Test 1 You will hear a number of different recordings and you will have to answer questions on what you hear. There will be time for you to read the instructions and questions and you will have a chance to check your work. All the recordings will be played once only. The test is in 4 sections. At the end of the test you will be given 10 minutes to transfer your answers to an answer sheet. Now turn to section 1. Section 1 You will hear a conversation between a clerk at the enquiries desk of a transport company an d a man who is asking for travel information. First you have some time to look at questions 1 to 5. 20 seconds] You will see that there is an example that has been done for you. On this occasion only the conversation relating to this will be played first. Woman: Good morning, Travel Link. How can I help you? Man: Good morning. I live in Bayswater and I’d like to get to Harbour City tomorrow before 11am. Woman: Well, to get to Bayswater †¦ Man: No, no. I live in Bayswater – my destination is Harbour City. Woman: Sorry. Right; so that’s Bayswater to Harbour City. Are you planning to travel by bus or train? Narrator: The man wants to go to Harbour City, so Harbour City has been written in the space.Now we shall begin. You should answer the questions as you listen because you will not hear the recording a second time. Listen carefully and answer questions 1 to 5. Woman: Good morning, Travel Link. How can I help you? Man: Good morning. I live in Bayswater and Ià ¢â‚¬â„¢d like to get to Harbour City tomorrow before 11am. Woman: Well, to get to Bayswater †¦ Man: No, no. I live in Bayswater – my destination is Harbour City. Woman: Sorry. Right; so that’s Bayswater to Harbour City. Are you planning to travel by bus or train? Man: I don’t mind really, whichever option is faster, I suppose.Woman: Well, if you catch a railway express, that’ll get you there in under an hour †¦ Let’s see – yes, if you can make the 9. 30am express, I’d recommend you do that. Man: Great. Which station does that leave from? Woman: Helendale is the nearest train station to you. Man: Did you say Helensvale? woman: No, Helendale – that’s H-E-L-E-N-D-A-L-E Man: What’s the best way to get to the Helendale station then? Woman: Well, hang on a minute while I look into that †¦ Now, it seems to me that you have two options. Option one would be to take the 706 bus from the Bayswater Shopping Cen tre to Central Street.When you get there, you transfer to another bus which will take you to the station. Or, the second option, if you don’t mind walking a couple of kilometres, is to go directly to Central Street and get straight on the bus going to the train station. Man: Okay. Which bus is that? Woman: The 792 will take you to the station. Man: I guess the walk will be good for me so that might be the better option. What time do I catch the 792? Woman: There are two buses that should get you to the station on time: one just before nine o’clock and one just after.But look, at that time of the morning it might be better to take the earlier one just in case there’s a traffic jam or something. The 8. 55 is probably safer than the 9. 05. Man: Yeah, I don’t want to the miss the train, so I’ll be sure to get on the five- to-nine bus. Narrator: Before you hear the rest of the conversation, you have some time to look at questions 6 to 10. [20 seconds] N ow listen and answer questions 6 to 10. Man: By the way, how much will I have to pay in fares? Woman: Well, you can get a ticket on the bus for $1. 80 cash and you’ll need $10 each way for the train.Wait, do you have a Travel Link Card? Man: No, but I can get one before tomorrow. Woman: Okay, well that’ll make it considerably cheaper then. The bus will cost $1. 50 each way, and the train will be – the train to Harbour City will †¦ still cost $10. 00 because you’ll be travelling during peak hours in the morning, so no savings there, I’m afraid. However, if you could come back at an off-peak time †¦ Man: What does that mean? Woman: Well, if you could start your return journey before 5pm or later than half past 7 in the evening †¦ Man: Actually, I wasn’t planning on coming back till at least 8 o’clock anyway.Woman: In that case, you can make quite a saving if you use your Travel Link Card. You did say you were planning to purchase one, didn’t you? Man: Yes, I’ll pick one up later today. Woman: Good – that would mean that your return train journey would only cost you $7. 15 with your card. Man: Thank you. Woman: Is there anything else I can help you with? Man: Actually, there is. Do you know if I can use the Travel Link Card on ferries? Woman: If you’re thinking of the Harbour City ferries that go back and forth between the north and south bank, those are the commuter ferries, then yes.A one-way trip costs $4. 50 but with your card you’d make a 20% saving and only pay $3. 55. Man: So, $3. 55 for the commuter ferry †¦What about the tour boats? Woman: You mean the tourist ferries that go upriver on sightseeing tours? No – they only take cash or credit card. They’re not part of the Travel Link Company. Man: Oh, I see. I don’t suppose you know the cost of a tour? Woman: In actual fact, I do, because I took a friend on the trip upriver just last week. We decided on the afternoon tour and that was $35 each but I understand that you can do the whole day for $65.Man: Thank you. You’ve been a great help. Woman: My pleasure. Enjoy your day out. Narrator: That is the end of section 1. You now have half a minute to check your answers. [30 seconds] Now turn to section 2. Narrator: Section 2 You will hear a guidance counsellor talking to a group of students. First you have some time to look at questions 11 to 14. [20 seconds] Listen carefully and answer questions 11 to 14. Speaker: Hello everyone. I’m the counselling administrator here at St. Ive’s College and I’ve been asked to come and talk to you about our counselling team and the services that we offer.We have three professional counsellors here at St. Ives: Louise Bagshaw, Tony Denby and Naomi Flynn. They each hold daily one-on-one sessions with students, but which counsellor you see will depend on a number of factors. If you’ve never used a c ounsellor before, then you should make an appointment with Naomi Flynn. Naomi specialises in seeing new students and offers a preliminary session where she will talk to you about what you can expect from counselling, followed by some simple questions about what you would like to discuss. This can be really helpful for students who are feeling a bit worried about the counselling process.Naomi is also the best option for students who can only see a counsellor outside office hours. She is not in on Mondays, but starts early on Wednesday mornings and works late on Thursday evenings, so you can see her before your first class or after your last class on those days. Louise staffs our drop-in centre throughout the day. If you need to see someone without a prior appointment then she is the one to visit. Please note that if you use this service then Louise will either see you herself, or place you with the next available counsellor.If you want to be sure to see the same counsellor on each vi sit, then we strongly recommend you make an appointment ahead of time. You can do this at reception during office hours or by using our online booking form. Tony is our newest addition to the counselling team. He is our only male counsellor and he has an extensive background in stress management and relaxation techniques. We encourage anyone who is trying to deal with anxiety to see him. Tony will introduce you to a full range of techniques to help you cope with this problem such as body awareness, time management and positive reinforcement. Narrator:Before you hear the rest of the talk, you have some time to look at questions 15 to 20. [20 seconds] Now listen and answer questions 15 to 20. Speaker: Each semester the counselling team runs a number of small group workshops. These last for two hours and are free to all enrolled students. Our first workshop is called Adjusting. We’ve found that tertiary education can come as a big shock for some people. After the structured lear ning environment of school, it is easy to feel lost. In this workshop, we will introduce you to what is necessary for academic success. As you might expect, we’re targeting first-year students with this offering.Getting organised follows on from the first workshop. Here, we’re going to help you break the habit of putting things off, get the most out of your time and discover the right balance between academic and recreational activities. With Getting organised, we’re catering to a broader crowd, which includes all undergraduates and postgraduates. Next up is a workshop called Communicating. The way people interact here may be quite different to what you’re used to, especially if you’ve come from abroad. We’ll cover an area that many foreign students struggle with – how to talk with teachers and other staff.We’ll cover all aspects of multicultural communication. International students tend to get a lot out of this class, so we p articularly encourage you to come along, but I must say that sometimes students from a local background find it helpful too. So, everyone is welcome! The Anxiety workshop is held later on in the year and deals with something you will all be familiar with – the nerves and anxiety that come when exams are approaching. Many students go through their entire academic careers suffering like this, but you don’t have to. Come to this workshop and we’ll teach you all about relaxation and how to reathe properly, as well as meditation and other strategies to remain calm. We’ve tailored this workshop to anyone who is going to sit exams. Finally, we have the Motivation workshop. The big topic here is how to stay on target and motivated during long-term research projects. This workshop is strictly for research students, as less-advanced students already have several workshops catering to their needs. Well, that’s it, thanks for your time. If you have any questio ns or want more information about our services, do come and see us at the Counselling Service. Narrator:That is the end of section 2. You now have half a minute to check your answers. [30 seconds] Now turn to section 3. Narrator: Section 3 You will hear a conversation between a tutor and two students who are preparing for an English literature test. First you have some time to look at questions 21 to 24. [20 seconds] Listen carefully and answer questions 21 to 24 Tutor: Hello Lorna, Ian. Glad you could make it. You’re the only two who put your names down for this literature tutorial so let’s get started, shall we? I want to run over some aspects of the novel, The Secret Garden, with ou before the test next week. Be sure to take some notes and ask questions if you need to. Ian: Hey Lorna, have you got a spare pen? Lorna: Sure, here you are. Tutor: Okay, so, the story follows two key characters – you should refer to them as protagonists – who go by the name s of Mary Lennox and Colin Craven. The story is set shortly after the turn of the twentieth century, and the narrative tracks the development of the protagonists as they learn to overcome their own personal troubles together. Lorna: That’s quite a common storyline, isn’t it? Tutor: Yes, you’re right, Lorna.So, what can you tell me about the character of Mary? Lorna: Well, in the beginning she is an angry, rude child who is orphaned after a cholera outbreak and forced to leave India and move to the United Kingdom to her uncle’s house in Yorkshire. Tutor: That’s right – and there she meets Colin who spends his days in an isolated room, believing himself to be permanently crippled with no hope of ever gaining the ability to walk. The two strike up a friendship and gradually learn – by encouraging each other – that they can both become healthy, happy and fulfilled in life.Ian: Will we need to remember a lot of these details for the exam? Tutor: Just the basic outline. Examiners don’t want to read a plot summary – they know what the book is about. Focus on narrative techniques instead, such as point of view. Lorna: What’s that mean? Tutor: It’s all about how we see the story. This story, for example, is written from the perspective of what is called an â€Å"omniscient narrator†. Omniscient means all-knowing. So, as readers we get to see how all the characters feel about things, what they like and don’t like, and what their motivations are in the story. Narrator:Before you hear the rest of the conversation, you have some time to look at questions 25 to 30. [20 seconds] Now listen and answer questions 25 to 30. Ian: Won’t it be hard to write a technical analysis? After all, it’s a kids’ book. Tutor: Well, it was initially pitched at adults you know, but over the years it has become seen as a more youth-orientated work. And you’re right in a s ense – the simple vocabulary and absence of foreshadowing make the story very easy to follow and ideally suited for children. But that doesn’t mean there isn’t much to analyse. Look at the symbolism, for instance.Lorna: Symbols are things, right? Material things – like objects – that stand for abstract ideas. Tutor: Absolutely, yes. And the author uses many of them. There’s the robin redbreast, for example, which symbolises the wise and gentle nature that Mary will soon adopt – note that the robin is described as â€Å"not at all like the birds in India†. Roses are used as well – as a personal symbol for Mistress Craven – you’ll see they’re always mentioned alongside her name. And Mistress Craven’s portrait can also be interpreted as a symbol of her spirit. Ian: Are symbols just another name for motifs?Tutor: No, motifs are a bit different. They don’t have as direct a connection with so mething the way that a symbol does. Motifs are simply recurring elements of the story that support the mood. Lorna: Are there any in this novel? Tutor: Yes, two very important ones. The Garden of Eden is a motif. It comes up a few times in connection with the garden of the story. And then you’ve got the role that secrets play in the story. In the beginning, everything is steeped in secrecy, and slowly the characters share their secrets and in the process move from darkness to lightness, metaphorically, but also in the ase of Colin, quite literally. His room in the beginning has the curtains drawn, and he appears at the end in the brightness of the garden. Ian: Anything else we need to know about? Tutor: Yes. Nearly all novels explore universal concepts that everyone has experienced – things like love, family, loneliness, friendship. These are called themes. The Secret Garden has a few themes that all centre on the idea of connections. The novel explores, for example, t he way that health can determine and be determined by our outlook on life. As Colin’s health improves, so too do his perceptions of his strength and possibility.The author also examines the link between our environment and our physical and emotional prosperity. The dark, cramped rooms of the manor house stifle the development of our protagonists; the garden and natural environments allow them to blossom, just as the flowers do. Finally, this book looks at connections between individuals, namely Mary and Colin. This necessity of human companionship is the novel’s most significant theme – because none of their development as individuals would have occurred without their knowing each other. Well, that about sums it up, I think. Lorna: That’s a great help, thanks.Ian: Yes, thanks very much. Narrator: That is the end of section 3. You now have half a minute to check your answers. [30 seconds] Now turn to section 4. Narrator: Section 4 You will hear a talk on t he topic of time perspectives. First you have some time to look at questions 31 to 40. [20 seconds] Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40. Speaker: Today, I’m going to be talking about time. Specifically I’ll be looking at how people think about time, and how these time perspectives structure our lives. According to social psychologists, there are six ways of thinking about time, which are called personal time zones.The first two are based in the past. Past positive thinkers spend most of their time in a state of nostalgia, fondly remembering moments such as birthdays, marriages and important achievements in their life. These are the kinds of people who keep family records, books and photo albums. People living in the past negative time zone are also absorbed by earlier times, but they focus on all the bad things – regrets, failures, poor decisions. They spend a lot of time thinking about how life could have been. Then, we have people who live in the pr esent.Present hedonists are driven by pleasure and immediate sensation. Their life motto is to have a good time and avoid pain. Present fatalists live in the moment too, but they believe this moment is the product of circumstances entirely beyond their control; it’s their fate. Whether it’s poverty, religion or society itself, something stops these people from believing they can play a role in changing their outcomes in life. Life simply â€Å"is† and that’s that. Looking at the future time zone, we can see that people classified as future active are the planners and go-getters.They work rather than play and resist temptation. Decisions are made based on potential consequences, not on the experience itself. A second future-orientated perspective, future fatalistic, is driven by the certainty of life after death and some kind of a judgement day when they will be assessed on how virtuously they have lived and what success they have had in their lives. Okay, let’s move on. You might ask â€Å"how do these time zones affect our lives? † Well, let’s start at the beginning. Everyone is brought into this world as a present hedonist. No exceptions.Our initial needs and demands – to be warm, secure, fed and watered – all stem from the present moment. But things change when we enter formal education – we’re taught to stop existing in the moment and to begin thinking about future outcomes. But, did you know that every nine seconds a child in the USA drops out of school? For boys, the rate is much higher than for girls. We could easily say â€Å"Ah, well, boys just aren’t as bright as girls† but the evidence doesn’t support this. A recent study states that boys in America, by the age of twenty one, have spent 10,000 hours playing video games.The research suggests that they’ll never fit in the traditional classroom because these boys require a situation where they have the ability to manage their own learning environment. Now, let’s look at the way we do prevention education. All prevention education is aimed at a future time zone. We say â€Å"don’t smoke or you’ll get cancer†, â€Å"get good grades or you won’t get a good job†. But with present-orientated kids that just doesn’t work. Although they understand the potentially negative consequences of their actions, they persist with the behaviour because they’re not living for the future; they’re in the moment right now.We can’t use logic and it’s no use reminding them of potential fall-out from their decisions or previous errors of judgment – we’ve got to get in their minds just as they’re about to make a choice. Time perspectives make a big difference in how we value and use our time. When Americans are asked how busy they are, the vast majority report being busier than ever before. They admit to sa crificing their relationships, personal time and a good night’s sleep for their success. Twenty years ago, 60% of Americans had sit-down dinners with their families, and now only 20% do.But when they’re asked what they would do with an eight-day week, they say â€Å"Oh that’d be great†. They would spend that time labouring away to achieve more. They’re constantly trying to get ahead, to get toward a future point of happiness. So, it’s really important to be aware of how other people think about time. We tend to think: â€Å"Oh, that person’s really irresponsible† or â€Å"That guy’s power hungry† but often what we’re looking at is not fundamental differences of personality, but really just different ways of thinking about time.Seeing these conflicts as differences in time perspective, rather than distinctions of character, can facilitate more effective cooperation between people and get the most out of each person’s individual strengths. Narrator: That is the end of section 4. You now have half a minute to check your answers. [30 seconds] That is the end of the listening test. You now have 10 minutes to transfer your answers to the listening answer sheet.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Blackrock by Nick Enright: Dramatic Play

The author of the play â€Å"Blackjack†, Nick Nearing has written a very dramatic play towards today's society. During the play he uses lots of techniques to make it relate to the audience, therefore making it more appealing to the readers. Friendship is also a major factor in the play, â€Å"Blackjack†. Throughout this play, many different attitudes and values are brought up. It is very appealing towards teenagers, because of today's society and how it relates to the problems of today.In the play, the attitudes towards women are very negative, such as the females Ewing thought to be the less powerful gender, compared to the males as being the powerful ones. This is always seen in today's society as the men over powering the women, because men are meet to be the big tough ones. The guys in the play treated the girls badly. They were always talking to them badly, acting like they were unimportant and less powerful. One of the main offenders of this was Rick. He appears t o be one of those people that only care about themselves and doesn't care about what happens to anyone else.Family and friends are a major part of the play. For example, When Rick asked his mate Jarred to try and cover up for him from the night of Tracey Warder's death. He wanted Jarred to say that Rick was with Jarred on the night of the incident, so that the police wouldn't be after him. Jarred asked his father what he thought he should do. His father said, if you think it is worth getting into to trouble with the law to help your friend then go ahead and back Rick up. This shows that you can't always be backing your friends up 100% of the time, if it meaner you may get into trouble for doing so then it isn't worth the risk.